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Infectious Diseases your Puppy can catch
Canine Distemper Adenovirus
Parvo Rabies
Kennel Cough Corona Virus

Canine distemper

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Canine distemper is a viral disease affecting animals in the families Canidae, Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Procyonidae, and possibly Felidae (though not domestic cats; feline distemper or panleukopenia is a virus exclusive to cats). The origin of the word distemper is from the Middle English distemperen, meaning to upset the balance of the humors, which is from the Old French destemprer, meaning to disturb, which is from the Vulgar Latin distemperare: Latin dis- and Latin temperare, meaning to mix properly.

Infection

Dogs from four months to four years old are particularly susceptible. Canine distemper virus (CDV) spreads through the air and through contact with infected bodily fluids, including food and water contaminated with these fluids. The time between infection and disease is 14 to 18 days, although there can be a fever from three to six days postinfection.

Calm Dogs

Canine distemper virus has a tropism for lymphoid, epithelial, and nervous tissues. Therefore, the typical pathologic features of canine distemper include lymphoid depletion (causing immunosuppression and leading to secondary infections), interstitial pneumonia, encephalitis with demyelination, and hyperkeratosis of foot pads . Histologic examination reveals intranuclear and intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies in numerous tissues.

Symptoms

  1. Dullness and redness of the eye
  2. Discharge from nose
  3. Vomiting and diarrhea
  4. Cough
  5. Shivering
  6. Fever
  7. Loss of appetite and energy
  8. Weight loss
  9. Seizures
  10. Thickened footpads
  11. Tooth enamel hypoplasia

Diagnosis

The above symptoms, especially fever, respiratory signs, neurological signs, and thickened footpads found in unvaccinated dogs strongly indicate canine distemper. Finding the virus by various methods in the dog's conjunctival cells gives a definitive diagnosis.

Treatment and prevention

There is no specific treatment for canine distemper. The dog should be treated by a veterinarian, usually with antibiotics for secondary bacterial infections, intravenous fluids, and nutritional supplements. The prognosis is poor.

There exist a number of vaccines against canine distemper for dogs and domestic ferrets, which in many jurisdictions are mandatory for pets. The type of vaccine should be approved for the type of animal being inoculated, or else the animal could actually contract the disease from the vaccine. Animals should be quarantined if infected. The virus is destroyed in the environment by routine cleaning with disinfectants, detergents, or drying. It does not survive in the environment for more than a few hours at room temperature (20-25° C), but can survive for a few weeks at temperatures slighty above freezing.

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Infectious canine hepatitis - Canine adenovirus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Infectious canine hepatitis is an acute liver infection in dogs caused by canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1). CAV-1 also causes disease in wolves, coyotes, and bears, and encephalitis in foxes. The virus is spread in the feces, urine, blood, saliva, and nasal discharge of infected dogs. It is contracted through the mouth or nose, where it replicates in the tonsils. The virus then infects the liver and kidneys. The incubation period is 4 to 7 days.

Symptoms include fever, depression, loss of appetite, coughing, and a tender abdomen. Corneal edema and signs of liver disease, such as jaundice, vomiting, and hepatic encephalopathy, may also occur. Severe cases will develop bleeding disorders, which can cause hematomas to form in the mouth. Death can occur secondary to this or the liver disease. However, most dogs recover after a brief illness, although chronic corneal edema and kidney lesions may persist.

Diagnosis is made by recognizing the combination of symptoms and abnormal blood tests that occur in infectious canine hepatitis. A rising antibody titer to CAV-1 is also seen. The disease can be confused with canine parvovirus because both will cause a low white blood cell count and bloody diarrhea in young, unvaccinated dogs.

Treatment is for the symptoms. Most dogs recover spontaneously without treatment. Prevention is through vaccination. Most combination vaccines for dogs contain a modified canine adenovirus type-2. CAV-2 is one of the causes of respiratory infections in dogs, but it is similar enough to CAV-1 that vaccine for one creates immunity for both. CAV-2 vaccine is much less likely to cause side effects than CAV-1 vaccine. One study has shown the vaccine to have a duration of immunity of at least four years.

CAV-1 is destroyed in the environment by steam cleaning and quaternary ammonium compounds. Otherwise, the virus can survive in the environment for months in the right conditions. It can also be released in the urine of a recovered dog for up to a year.

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Canine parvovirus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Infection

There are two forms of CPV: intestinal and cardiac. Cardiac form is less common and affects puppies infected in utero or shortly after birth. Symptoms of heart failure usually emerge in puppies less than eight weeks old. The virus attacks the heart muscle and the dog dies suddenly of heart failure. However, this form is now rarely seen due to widespread vaccination of breeding dogs.

Certain breeds, such as Rottweilers, Doberman Pinschers, Labrador Retrievers, and Pit bull terriers as well as other black and tan colored dogs may be more susceptible to CPV

Dogs become infected through oral contact with CPV in feces, infected soil, or fomites carrying the virus. Puppies are most susceptible. They are initially protected by maternal antibodies received in colostrum while nursing. These antibodies wear off before the puppy's immune system is mature enough to fight off CPV infection. Maternal antibodies also interfere with vaccination for CPV and can cause vaccine failure. This is why puppies are generally vaccinated in a series of shots, extending from the earliest time that the immunity derived from the mother wears off until after that passive immunity is definitely gone.

Following ingestion, the virus replicates in the lymphoid tissue in the throat, and then spreads to the bloodstream. From there, the virus attacks rapidly dividing cells, notably those in the lymph nodes, intestinal crypts, and the bone marrow. There is depletion of lymphocytes in lymph nodes and necrosis and destruction of the intestinal crypts. In the fetus and newborn puppy, the virus attacks the heart muscle. Bacteria that normally live in the intestines then cross into the bloodstream and cause sepsis. Three to four days following infection, the virus is shed in the feces for up to three weeks, and the dog may remain an asymptomatic carrier and shed the virus periodically.

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Signs and symptoms

Most dogs (more than 80 percent) that are infected will show no symptoms. Dogs that develop the disease show symptoms of the illness within 3 to 10 days. The symptoms include lethargy, vomiting, fever, and diarrhea (usually bloody). Dogs with CPV are also at risk for intussusception, a condition where part of the intestine prolapses into another part. After a dog is infected, there is no cure, but dogs usually recover from the viral infection and associated symptoms within five days with aggressive treatment.However, diarrhea and vomiting result in dehydration and secondary infections can set in, causing death even in treated dogs. Risk factors for severe disease include young age, a stressful environment, and concurrent infections with bacteria, parasites, and canine coronavirus.

Due to dehydration, the dog's electrolyte balance is destroyed. Because of destruction of the normal intestinal lining, blood and protein leak into the intestines leading to anemia and loss of protein, and endotoxins escape into the bloodstream, causing endotoxemia. The white blood cell level drops, further weakening the dog. Any or all of these factors can lead to shock and death.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is made through detection of CPV in the feces by either an ELISA or hemagglutination test, or through electron microscopy. However, the presence of bloody diarrhea and a low white blood cell count in an unvaccinated dog are strong indications of infection.

Treatment

Survival rate depends on how quickly CPV is diagnosed and how aggressive the treatment is. Treatment for severe cases usually involves extensive hospitalization, including IV fluids and colloids, antinausea injections (antiemetics), and antibiotic injections. There is no specific antiviral treatment for CPV. Even with hospitalization, there is no guarantee that the dog will survive.

Prevention and contamination

Direct contact with infected feces is not necessary for the disease to spread: viral particles on shoes, clothing, hair, and so on are all that is needed for the transmission. The disease is extremely hardy and has been found to be present in feces or other organic material (eg. soil) even after a year including extremely cold and hot temperatures. The only household disinfectant that kills the virus is a mixture of bleach and water, 1 part bleach and 30 parts of water.

Prevention is the only way to ensure that a puppy or dog remains healthy. This disease is extremely virulent and contagious. With severe disease, dogs can die in as little as 6 to 8 hours despite treatment. In the more common, less severe form, mortality is about 10 percent.

It is extremely important to vaccinate puppies and adult dogs against CPV. Weaning puppies should receive initial vaccination at 6 weeks of age, then every 3 to 4 weeks until 15 or 16 weeks of age with a modified live virus low passage high titer vaccine. Older puppies (16 weeks or older) should receive 2 vaccinations 3 to 4 weeks apart. The duration of immunity of vaccines for CPV has been tested for all major vaccine manufacturers in the United States and has been found to be at least three years.

A dog that successfully recovers from CPV is still contagious for up to 2 months, so the dog must be kept away from other dogs and puppies. Neighbours and family members with dogs should be notified of infected animals so that they can ensure that their dogs are vaccinated and tested.

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Canine coronavirus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Canine coronavirus is a virus of the family Coronaviridae that causes a highly contagious intestinal disease worldwide in dogs. It was discovered in 1971 in Germany during an outbreak in sentry dogs.

Symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and control

The incubation period is only one to three days. The disease is highly contagious and is spread through the feces of infected dogs, who usually shed the virus for six to nine days, but sometimes for six months following infection. Symptoms include diarrhea, vomiting, and anorexia. Diagnosis is through detection of virus particles in the feces. Treatment usually only requires medication for diarrhea, but more severely affected dogs may require intravenous fluids for dehydration. Fatalities are rare. The virus is destroyed by most available disinfectants. There is a vaccine available, and it is usually given to puppies, who are more susceptible to canine coronavirus, and to dogs that have a high risk of exposure, such as show dogs.

Canine respiratory coronavirus

Recently, a second type of canine coronavirus (Group II) has been shown to cause respiratory disease in dogs. Known as canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) and found to be similar to strain OC43 of bovine and human coronaviruses, it was first isolated in the United Kingdom in 2003 from lung samples of dogs and has since been found on the European mainland and in Japan. A serological study in 2006 has also shown antibodies to CRCoV to be present in dogs in Canada and the United States. However, a retrospective study in Saskatchewan found that CRCoV may have been present there as far back as 1996.

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Kennel cough

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kennel cough or tracheobronchitis is a highly contagious canine illness characterized by inflammation of the upper respiratory system. It can be caused by viral infections such as canine distemper, canine adenovirus, canine parainfluenza virus, or canine respiratory coronavirus, or bacterial infections such as Bordetella bronchiseptica. It is so named because the infection can spread quickly among dogs, such as in the close quarters of a kennel.

Infection

Both viral and bacterial causes of kennel cough are spread through the air by infected dogs sneezing and coughing. It can also spread through contact with contaminated surfaces and through direct contact. It is highly contagious. Exposure occurs in environments where there are other dogs in proximity, such as kennels, dog shows, and groomers. Symptoms begin usually 3 to 5 days after exposure. The disease can progress to pneumonia.

Symptoms

Symptoms can include a harsh, dry hacking/coughing, retching, or gagging;in response to light pressing of the trachea or after excitement or exercise. The presence of a fever varies from case to case. The disease can last from 10-20 days. Diagnosis is made by seeing these symptoms and having a history of exposure.

Treatment and prevention

Antibiotics are given to treat any bacterial infection present. Cough suppressants are used if the cough is not productive (nothing is being coughed up). The prognosis is good. Prevention is by vaccinating for canine adenovirus, distemper, parainfluenza, and Bordetella. In kennels, the best prevention is to keep all the cages disinfected. Most kennels will not board dogs without proof of vaccination.

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Rabies

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Transmission and symptoms

Any mammal may become infected with the rabies virus and develop symptoms, including humans. Most animals can be infected by the virus and can transmit the disease to humans. Infected bats, raccoons, foxes, skunks, dogs or cats provide the greatest risk to humans. Rabies may also spread through exposure to infected domestic farm animals, groundhogs, weasels and other wild carnivores. Squirrels, rodents and rabbits are seldom infected.

The virus is usually present in the blood, nerves, and saliva of a symptomatic rabid animal. The route of infection is usually, but not necessarily, by a bite. In many cases the affected animal is exceptionally aggressive, may attack without provocation, and exhibits otherwise uncharacteristic behavior[1]. Transmission may also occur via an aerosol through mucous membranes; transmission in this form may have happened in people exploring caves populated by rabid bats. Transmission between humans is extremely rare, although it can happen through transplant surgery (see below for recent cases), or, even more rarely, through bites or kisses.

After a typical human infection by bite, the virus directly or indirectly enters the peripheral nervous system. It then travels along the nerves towards the central nervous system. During this phase, the virus cannot be easily detected within the host, and vaccination may still confer cell-mediated immunity to preempt symptomatic rabies. Once the virus reaches the brain, it rapidly causes encephalitis and symptoms appear. It may also inflame the spinal cord producing myelitis.

The period between infection and the first flu-like symptoms is normally two to twelve weeks, but can be as long as two years. Soon after, the symptoms expand to slight or partial paralysis, cerebral dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, confusion, agitation, abnormal behavior, paranoia, hallucinations, progressing to delirium. The production of large quantities of saliva and tears coupled with an inability to speak or swallow are typical during the later stages of the disease; this can result in "hydrophobia", where the victim has difficulty swallowing, shows panic when presented with liquids to drink, and cannot quench their thirst. The disease itself was also once commonly known as hydrophobia, from these characteristic symptoms. Death almost invariably results two to ten days after the first symptoms; the few humans who are known to have survived the disease were all left with severe brain damage, with the recent exception of Jeanna Giese.

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Prevention

There is no known cure for symptomatic rabies, but it can be prevented by vaccination, both in humans and other animals. Virtually every infection with rabies was a death sentence, until Louis Pasteur and Emile Roux developed the first rabies vaccination in 1885. This vaccine was first used on nine-year old boy Joseph Meister (1876-1940), on July 2, 1885, after the boy was mauled by a rabid dog.

Their vaccine consisted of a sample of the virus harvested from infected (and necessarily dead) rabbits, which was weakened by allowing it to dry. Similar nerve tissue-derived vaccines are still used now in some countries, and while they are much cheaper than modern cell culture vaccines, they are not as effective and carry a certain risk of neurological complications.

The human diploid cell rabies vaccine (H.D.C.V.) was started in 1967. Human diploid cell rabies vaccines are made using the attenuated Pitman-Moore L503 strain of the virus. Human diploid cell rabies vaccines have been given to more than 1.5 million humans as of 2006. Newer and less expensive purified chicken embryo cell vaccine, and purified Vero cell rabies vaccine are now available. The purified Vero cell rabies vaccine uses the attenuated Wistar strain of the rabies virus, and uses the Vero cell line as its host.

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